Sunday, May 24, 2020

Engineering Ethics of Titanic Sinking Essay - 1756 Words

Steven Miller Phl 3221 Professor Tapp 5/24/2007 Utilitarianism Look at the Titanic When engineers design a product many things go in to the decision making process when it comes to selecting materials, design, and the manufacturing processes. One concern that has always been in the decision making process is trying to make sure the outcome will always be ethically good, although this isn’t always the case. Try as they might, no person is perfect, and accidents do happen. When engineering disasters happen there are many factors that may be involved, such as human factors, design flaws, extreme conditions, and materials failures. When these things do happen it is important to look at the ethical aspect of each part of the failure and†¦show more content†¦Jeremy Bentham created an algorithm to determine the degree or amount of pleasure that a specific action is likely to cause. He called this Hedonic Calculus and it was divided into seven different categories. Bentham based this calculation off of intensity, or the strength of the pleasure, duration or how long the pleasure will last, certainty or how likely it is pleasure will occur, propinquity or how soon the pleasure will occur, fecundity or the likeliness it will be followed by pleasures, purity or probability that feelings of the opposite will occur, and extent or how many people will be affected. I will try to put some of the major failures of the Titanic in to these categories to determine the ethical standing of the engineers responsible for the Titanic. When analyzing this disaster the first thing to consider is the engineer’s design of the Titanic. The Titanic was employing many new and innovative designs that were believed to make the Titanic the safest ship ever built at that time. The engineer’s of the vessel made claims that the Titanic was â€Å"unsinkable† and that â€Å"even in the worst possible accident at sea, the ship should have stayed afloat for two to three days.† One of the features that lead them to this claim was the 16 wate rtight compartments in the hull of the ship. The way they were designed allowed for up to four compartments to be breached and they ship would still carryShow MoreRelatedEthics And Ethics Of Engineering Ethics2079 Words   |  9 Pagesaddresses the importance of engineering ethics as it pertains to the health, safety, and well-being of not only individuals but society. By beginning with the root needs of engineering ethics by first discussing its history and then moving on to how unethical choices can and have had a deadly impact on communities. Once a basis is established the document states the core fundamentals, instructions, and responsibilities of engineering ethics. I. INTRODUCTION What is engineering ethics and what is its importanceRead MoreCan Human Error Be Prevented By Technology?2369 Words   |  10 Pagesâ€Å"Technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry; ‘advances in computer technology, machinery and equipment developed from the application of scientific knowledge, the branch of knowledge dealing with engineering or applied sciences.† There has been talk of needing reusable space transportation since the late 1960’s. But support politically and economically was never strong. NASA was making promises to the American people of increased national security andRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagespresident of Chile, was murdered in 1973 and her WOMEN IN THE TWENTIETH- CENTURY WORLD †¢ 113 family had to flee to safety abroad. In 1985, her novel, House of the Spirits, captured not only the titanic struggles of Chilean politics but also the activism of generations of titanic women, who are, among other fantastic qualities, clairvoyant. Laura Esquivel’s Like Water for Chocolate (1989) was translated into two dozen languages and became a hit film because of its setting in a Mexican

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Essay on Pros and Cons of Minimum Wage - 701 Words

Pros and Cons of Minimum Wage The argument for minimum wage has remained remake consistent over the years. Some people are against minimum wage and the other think minimum wage can help you in a certain way. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Unites States federal government passed the Fair Labor Standards Act. The law has been amended almost every year to expand coverage of the wage floor and to increase the wage itself. Many of the fifty states have enacted their own minimum wage laws, some of them set even higher than the federal level. Minimum wage jobs don’t only help adults at hard times it help teenagers and college students. I learned that the proponents for minimum wage believe the raw value of one’s labor to a business†¦show more content†¦It was mentioned the standard capitalist argument against a minimum wage has come under empirical attack lately and it must be said there is no consensus on the matter. The law of minimum wage interferes with the law of comparative advan tage and monopolizes the affected labor markets in favor of the higher-skilled laborers whose labor is worth the higher wage. Some argue that the effect that the minimum wage is merely a huge, hidden tax paid by small minority. On other hand employers chose other methods than simple layoffs to offset the added cost of more expensive workforce. The theoretically include hiring fewer employees in the future not replacing all employees who resign, retire or are fired not making capital expenditures to improve their business raising price on the goods and services they offer and decreasing the number of hours worked per employee. The moral argument against minimum wage is based on the ideas of self-ownership and freedom, grounded in the ethical concrete of self-interest. One of the most interesting things I discovered while researching this topic was the historical nature of the argument. Some empirical studies appear to lend weight to the claim that these laws don’t cause unempl oyment, but they aren’t comprehensive enough to fully gauge theShow MoreRelatedThe Pros And Cons Of Minimum Wage994 Words   |  4 PagesThe idea of the minimum wage is that workers are guaranteed enough money to improve their standard of living. The price of the minimum wage is determined by the state, but a federal minimum wage is set. Some states choose to go above the minimum wage, while others, such as Alabama and Louisiana, choose to not have a minimum wage at all (Root). The minimum wage is important to society, because it can affect many people’s lives. There are many pros and cons to having a minimum wage in the United StatesRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of The Minimum Wage769 Words   |  4 PagesDid you know minimum wage was $0.25 per hour in 1938? Since then it has raised to a whopping $7.25. Most readers will agree that there is a problem with this current minimum wage, considering the cost of living and salaries, Etc. However, they might not understand the complexity of the issue. In fact, the topic is not simply a question of if the minimum wage should be increased or kept the same, but more of a complex issue involving the different viewpoints on why people agree or disagree. Some reasonsRead MorePros And Cons Of Minimum Wage991 Words   |  4 PagesA minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers must legally pay their workers for their services. It is an example of a price floor below which workers may not wish to sell their labour legally. The purpose of minimum wages is to protect workers against low pay. They help ensure an equitable share of profits and a minimum living wage to all who are employed. Minimum wage can also be one element of a policy to overcome poverty and reduce inequality, including those between men and womenRead MorePros And Cons Of The Minimum Wage1620 Words   |  7 PagesIncreasing the federal minimum wage has been a controversial topic around the United States; many people are in favor of rais ing the minimum wage, while others heavily oppose the idea. While everyone is entitled to their own opinion, statistics have shown that the minimum wage is closely correlated to public health, and it shows that this topic is a much bigger and broader picture than simply economics. The federal minimum wage has a history that dates all the way back to 1938, and the strong debatesRead MorePros And Cons Of The Minimum Wage1755 Words   |  8 PagesMinimum Wage: The Pros and Cons Looking back over the last century, minimum wage has been a divisive subject among policy makers and economists in the United States. As far back as 1938 when the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) was first introduced, minimum wage has been a contentious issue. After much judicial opposition, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law a bill which was a landmark in the nation’s social and economic development. The bill banned oppressive child labor, set the minimumRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Abolishing Minimum Wage954 Words   |  4 PagesAbolishing Minimum Wage Increase, decrease or abolish minimum wage; which is best for our citizens and our economy? Minimum wage was implemented to help unskilled workers to make a living wage but as time goes on the value of minimum wage has plummet. In my research paper I will provide knowledge about minimum wage such as the history, purpose, benefits and the results. I will also present the pros and cons of abolishing the minimum wage and the increase/decrease of minimum. The minimum wage was originallyRead MorePros And Cons Of Raising The Minimum Wage1908 Words   |  8 PagesTai K. Lamar Jennifer Chicosky ENG-111-IN1 07/21/17 Raising the Minimum Wage from $7.25 Can you live off $7.25 an hour? Would you be able to pay all your bills, and have plenty of money left over for food, as well as personal pleasures? Imagine your salary was cut down to a forty-hour work week at the minimum wage salary in your state. Can you save money while on a minimum wage hourly salary? These same questions are on the minds of many Americans that are currently facing these struggles every timeRead MorePros and Cons of Raising a Minimum Wage Essay1126 Words   |  5 PagesMinimum Wage A minimum wage is the lowest hourly wage that employers have to compensate the workers for their service. Currently the federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour. However, many states also have their own minimum wage laws. In those instances, the employee is entitled to the higher of the two minimum wages. In this paper we will discuss the brief history of the minimum wage law and its current legislation. We will also analyze the pros and cons of raising the minimum wage, and theRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Raising The Minimum Wage993 Words   |  4 PagesAlthough it is not a new topic in America, the decision to raise the minimum wage continues to be controversial, especially in the political realm. The political parties still move to block the opposing party from successfully implanting their ideals, causing either nothing to be accomplished or the situation to worsen. Research shows that raising the minimum wage a reasonable amount would lessen the gap between the rich and th e poor, continue to fulfill its original purpose of protecting workersRead MoreEssay on Pros and Cons of Raising the Minimum Wage1156 Words   |  5 PagesPros and Cons of Raising the Minimum Wage When you picture a minimum wage worker, who do you picture? Do you see a sixteen year old, a middle-aged mother, a college graduate, or even a senior citizen worker? In September of 2013, California governor Jerry Brown signed a new bill into act that would cause the California minimum wage to rise from the current $8.00 and hour to $10.00 and hour in increments over the next three years. The minimum wage rate will go up in two separate $1.00 boosts.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Modernist Poetry Effectiveness Free Essays

Modernist Poetry: Effectiveness When it comes to opinions everyone has one. Saying that Modernist poetry has no specific structure or form and therefore means it is not as ‘effective’, is like myself saying curry is spicy, sweet and doesn’t fit in with my taste buds and therefore curry is the worst seasoning. Poetry is far too complex to reduce to a simple â€Å"effective† or â€Å"not effective† dichotomy. We will write a custom essay sample on Modernist Poetry: Effectiveness or any similar topic only for you Order Now To object to an opinion maybe you need to understand where they are coming from. Taking a look at traditional poetry you see rhyme schemes and specific meter and other rigid aspects of form. Modernist experimented vigorously with the poetic forms, language and versification, often doing away with rhythmical sweetness and the regularity of the traditional forms. Like a teenager that never finishes high school. She is considered by society to be a failure because she never met their ideals. However, she then goes out, gets signed and now almost everyone knows her name, Christina Aguilera. Also read: Platos Attack on Poetry Whatever be the structure of a modern poem, there is a hidden meaning and rhythm of course. Even, that particular structure bears significance. That beauty and meaning cannot be interpreted by traditional readers. Others, of course, prefer traditional poetry, but I do not think either is more effective than the other; they just cater to different tastes. Just like when it comes to tastes in music, some people like country others prefer rap. Just because one become before the other doesn’t make it the right one and the other wrong, it makes them different. How to cite Modernist Poetry: Effectiveness, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

The Risk Factor for Diseases Such As Hypertension and Diabetes.

Question: What Is The Risk Factor For Diseases Such As Hypertension And Diabetes? Answer: Introduction Obesity is a disease that has a direct impact on the socio-economic status of women on their reproductive year and the entire society, it is ranked top among the cause of worldwide economic burden it rivals issues such as smoking and violence. Obesity has a direct effect on the psychosocial status of the women and its effects can be manifested in form of stigmatization of the obese women in the society. Moreover, obesity has been considered as a risk factor and the same time a disease. For example, it is a risk factor for diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. At the same time, obesity as a health problem have a negative impact on the life of women in their reproductive age, and it can also greatly influence the choice of the lifestyle of a woman in her reproductive period. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to describe the effect of obesity to the life of women in their reproductive age by focusing on the effect of obesity on the womens lifestyle, womens reproductive choi ces and the financial implication on managing obesity at an individual and society level. Search strategy The process of searching for primary literature sources for references was started in two levels. First, by reviewing the journal articles study topic and the abstract leading to rejection of studies that were not original research papers, studies that addressed either obesity or women in reproductive age and not both. In the second phase, the studies were selected based on the content. An elaborate literature search strategy was established, the strategy involved obtaining many current, relevant and English-language written studies that would be further filtered using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The strategy involved searching for studies that are not more than 10 years old, the journal articles were searched in the three databases available in mylibrary. The databases that were searched included CINAHL [Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health], PubMed, Swepub, Ebscohost, Emerald, Wiley online library and the Cochrane library. The core interest was a full-text of the jou rnal articles. The research title was broken down into the main subject words, this was done to attain the most effective keywords to perform the journal search. At the same time, the reference list of most relevant journal articles was screened for potential relevant literature. The keywords were combined using the Boolean operators. For example, AND, OR and NOT were used. This process then led to one set of articles with articles that contained most relevant information. At the same time, Truncate such as * was used to truncate words and find different word endings. The key words used during the literature search included obesity, women, reproductive age, mental health, lifestyle, pregnancy, birth, and parenting. Description of the obesity Uzogara (2017) suggested that obesity can be defined as a disease that is caused by surplus deposition fat in the cells of the body referred to as adipose tissues. Fat deposition around certain body parts can immensely alter the proper body organ functions. Word Health Organization (WHO) has formulated a standard definition of obesity as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2. The rapid change of lifestyle around the world has been affiliated to the rise of the number of reported obesity cases in the world as suggested by (Flegal et al., 2012). Obesity is a known risk factor for certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, research findings have established that there is a relationship between obesity and infertility among the women in childbearing age according to (Gormack et al., 2015). For example, in women obesity has been associated with prolonged time taken to enable conception, increased risk of miscarriage and other compli cations associated with pregnancy. The findings from a study conducted in the United States revealed that 34.6 % of the adult with age above 20 years were found to be obese with 7.2% of them evidently depressed according to (Poromaa, 2015). Whereas, He et al. (2016) concluded that there is an increased obesity cases among the women on their reproductive year in rural china, with the china as a country having 24.8% as the prevalence rate of obesity among the women on their reproductive year. The prevalence of obesity comes with a heavy financial burden on both an individual level and society. For example, the United States spends 20% of the money allocated to the health-care sector to manage and treat obesity according to (Cawley and Meyerhoefer, 2012). Obesity as an issue for women and their physical, mental, emotional and/or mental health The results from various research findings have revealed that lack of active and consistent physical activities and poor dietary practices are closely associated with poor health condition of a person as suggested by (Deliens et al., 2015; Craig et al., 2008). Therefore, individuals lifestyle choice and active participation in physical activity contribute immensely to lowering the risk of developing health problem such as obesity. It is for the reasons why intervention program focusing on the womens life at a personal level should be adopted and women in the reproductive age are encouraged to participate in such programs. Jensen et al. (2014) suggested that intervention programs that encourage women active participation in physical activity plays a key role in weight loss therapy among the women. Active participation in physical activities leads to increase in metabolic rate with higher energy expenditure with impeding in the food intake among the obese (Catenacci et al. 2007). The relationship between obesity in women and mental status is an area that have elicited a lot of research interest. Findings from different research have revealed a bidirectional association between obesity and mental health condition of the women (Tronieri et al., 2017; Ruhstaller et al., 2016; Molyneaux et al., 2014). Therefore, it is still not clear whether obesity can cause depression or if depression may cause obesity or if the two are as a result of a common cause due to either lifestyle factors or biological factors. As suggested by Assari and Caldwell (2015), there is no association between obesity and major depression disorder, however, the findings contradicts the findings of the research conducted by (National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey[NHANES], 2010), whose findings revealed that women with depression were at high risk of obesity as compared to women who were not suffering from depression. At the same time, race has also been established to be another key determinant of the risk of being obesity among the women on their reproductive age of the different race. For example, 45% of the non-Hispanic white women with depression were found to be likely of developing obesity compared to 32% non-Hispanic white women without depression were found to be obese according to (NHANES, 2010), whereas among the non-Hispanic black and Mexican American the study results revealed no such association between depression and occurrence of incidence of obesity among the women on their reproductive age of the two mentioned races. The results from another study conducted by (Assari and Lankarani, 2015), on the association between obesity and intention to lose weight women in their reproductive age were found to be stronger as compared to men of the same age bracket. Therefore, the findings should encourage the development of intervention programs that are based on the gender and race from a policy perspective. Effect of obesity on the womans lifestyle/lifestyle choices Loos et al. (2008) concluded that lifestyle choices of women have direct association with population characteristics including mortality, women fertility and prevalence of the health problem as obesity. For example, results of the research have revealed than bad lifestyle choices such as excessive alcohol have a negative influence on the active participation in physical activities and poor dietary practices leading to lifestyle diseases such as obesity among the women (Kantartzis et al., 2011). The effect of lifestyle choice and behavior change as an intervention measure of obesity can be felt at individual, community, and population level. The interventions focusing on the lifestyle choices of an individual woman is based on individuals health condition and the physical environment as suggested by (Evans et al., 2016). For example, government policies have been used to use effectively to influence womens lifestyle and behavior patterns. This is typical in situations where government levies high exercise duty tax on processed food items which contain added sugars, alcohol products, and cigarettes. For instance, in the UK 20% tax have been put on beverages with processed sugar used as sweetener leading to the reduction in the prevalence of obesity cases by about 1.3% according to (Briggs et al., 2013). The results from study conducted in the United States also supports the use of government policies to influence the lifestyle choices of its citizen in the USA it has been established that for every 1% increase in the price of the high energy calorie food products such as sweetened sugar drink there is reduction in energy intake by 0.02% as suggested by (Briggs et al., 2013). At an individual level, the lifestyle choices involve change of key determinants of behavior found in an individual the same can be said when a group based interventions are carried out such interventions target lifestyle. Normanetal et al. (2008) concluded that among the women on their reproductive period, obesity and poor lifestyle choices such high consumption of alcohol and caffeine increases the risk of infertility, a prolonged time taken to conceive, increased chances of miscarriage and other pregnancy complications. According to (Gormacket al., 2015), women with fertility problem need specific intervention program that focuses on the education on suitable lifestyle choices leading to improved conception and foetal health. However, the results from other studies have failed to establish an association between lifestyle choices and the success of fertility treatment for women suffering from infertility according to (Rooney and Domar, 2014). Therefore, there is an urgent need for more studies to be conducted to provide evidence-based information to the women on their reproductive year on how to make good lifestyle choices aimed at improving the health problems such as obesity and improved fertility . For example, a study conducted by (Gormacket al., 2015), the results revealed that women who made the right lifestyle choice and stopped or reduced alcohol consumption recorded twice the odd of becoming pregnant as compared to women of the same age who maintained their drinking habit during the fertility treatment. The intervention programs targeting lifestyle behavioral changes during pregnancy have been found to be of great benefit by reducing in the BMI, hence reduced chances of obesity whose causative agent is pregnancy. However, such lifestyle interventions have little impact if they are only implemented during the period of the pregnancy (A?c? and Rathfisch, 2016). For the women on their reproductive year, the intervention programs developed targets lifestyle changes involving good dietary practice and active participation in physical activities leading to reduced cases of obesity as the desired outcome. At an individual level, the behavior change involves a change of key determinants of behavior found in an individual the same can be said when group based interventions are carried out such interventions target lifestyle. Individual intervention for example weight loss programs formulated targeting the entire women population on their reproductive year university can have a direct effect on the population contrary to just an individual student. Effect of obesity on the womans reproductive choices, including effects on fertility, pregnancy, birth and parenting There is evidence that linking obesity to the women reproduction, several studies have associated obesity to sub-fertility, and findings from the research have established 6-9% of women in their reproductive age suffers from ovulatory infertility among them half are obese (Poromaa, 2015). Therefore the practice of bariatric surgery among the women in the childbearing age has increased (Edison et al., 2016). According to (Normanetal et al. (2008), the occurrence of obesity the women on their reproductive year increases the risk of low fertility rates, a prolonged time is taken to conceive, increased chances of miscarriage, and other pregnancy complications. Obesity has been associated with stigma among the pregnant women (Moussa et al., 2016; Arden et al., 2014). For example, a study conducted by (Dinsdale et al., 2016) it was noted that women who were study participants desired their individual knowledge and behavior to be accepted and shunned being classified as obese, the word obes e was has been seen as offensive due to the negative references generally allied to obesity. The same discomfort of using term obesity has been experienced by midwives due to expectation raised during the routine practice without relevant support besides different opinions have been expressed that raising the topic of obesity with the women during pregnancy may further worsen the situation by isolating more obese women from the midwifery services (Molyneaux et at., 2014). According to (Edison et al., 2016; Gormacket al., 2015;), women with fertility problem need specific intervention program that focuses on the education on suitable lifestyle choices with a view of improved health status such as reduced chances of being obese and improved foetal health (Nyman et al., 2010) . However, the results from other studies have failed to establish an association between lifestyle choices and the success of fertility treatment for women suffering from infertility according to (Rooney and Domar, 2014). Therefore, there is an urgent need for more studies to be conducted to provide evidence based information to the women on their reproductive year on how to make good lifestyle choices aimed at improving the health problems such as obesity and improved fertility. For example, a study conducted by (Gormacket al., 2015), the results revealed that women who made the right lifestyle choice and stopped or reduced alcohol consumption which is considered as risk factors t o obesity, they recorded twice the odd of becoming pregnant as compared to women of the same age who maintained their drinking habit during the fertility treatment. As suggested by Mutsaerts et al. (2016) reduction in weight loss increases conception rate and improved perinatal outcome among the women in their reproductive year. The financial implications for the woman and her family and, where applicable, the financial burden on society Obesity has been linked to a reduction in longevity and poor quality of life, the research has shown that the epidemic of obesity impacts negatively on the economies of both middle to low income countries across the world. For example, It is estimated that in the financial year 2006-07 it cost the UK government 5.8 billion to treat and manage diseases that are related to poor diet and lifestyle, to be precise the cost of treating and managing obesity cost 5.1 billion according to (Scarborough et al., 2011). The burden caused by obesity has been attributed increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease and diabetes. Women in their reproductive year experience the financial burden through the cost incurred during hospital admission and laboratory tests (Briggs et al., 2013; Scarborough et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011). The society at large also experiences the indirect financial burden due to the prevalence of obesity among the women in their reproductive period due to increased mortality, early retirement, pension due to disability and reduced productivity in the workplace. Studies have shown that financial cost incurred due to lost productivity is higher than estimated medical cost According to (Wang et al., 2011). Conclusion It is very clear from the literature review that obesity has a direct effect on the socio-economic, mental status, and lifestyle choices among the women on their reproductive age. The evidence as discussed has shown that poor lifestyle choices made by women such as sedentary life, increased consumption of alcohol, poor dietary practices negatively impacts the women fertility and reproduction life. At the same time, obesity is a source of a greater financial burden on the individuals and their family. In conclusion, the medical professions should develop and promote health interventions programs that are targeting the women on childbearing age with a view of reducing the prevalence of obesity as a health issue among them leading to improved quality of life. Reference Arden, M. A., Duxbury, A. M., Soltani, H. (2014). Responses to gestational weight management guidance: a thematic analysis of comments made by women in online parenting forums.BMC pregnancy and childbirth,14(1), 216. A?c?, ., Rathfisch, G. (2016). Effect of lifestyle interventions of pregnant women on their dietary habits, lifestyle behaviors, and weight gain: a randomized controlled trial.Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition,35(1), 7. Assari, S. (2014). The link between mental health and obesity: role of individual and contextual factors.Int J Prev Med,5(3), 247-9. Assari, S., Caldwell, C. H. (2015). Gender and ethnic differences in the association between obesity and depression among black adolescents.Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities,2(4), 481-493. Assari, S., Lankarani, M. M. (2015). The Association between obesity and weight loss intention weaker among blacks and men than whites and women.Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities,2(3), 414-420. Briggs, A. D., Mytton, O. T., Kehlbacher, A., Tiffin, R., Rayner, M., Scarborough, P. (2013). Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study.Bmj,347, f6189. Catenacci, V.A. and Wyatt, H.R., 2007. The role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss.Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology Metabolism,3(7), pp.518-529. Cawley, J. and Meyerhoefer, C., 2012. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach.Journal of health economics,31(1), pp.219-230. Craig, P., Dieppe, P., Macintyre, S., Michie, S., Nazareth, I. and Petticrew, M., 2008. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance.Bmj,337, p.a1655. Edison, E., Whyte, M., van Vlymen, J., Jones, S., Gatenby, P., de Lusignan, S., Shawe, J. (2016). Bariatric Surgery in Obese Women of Reproductive Age Improves Conditions That Underlie Fertility and Pregnancy Outcomes: Retrospective Cohort Study of UK National Bariatric Surgery Registry (NBSR).Obesity Surgery,26(12), 2837-2842. Evans, A., Ranjit, N., Hoelscher, D., Jovanovic, C., Lopez, M., McIntosh, A., ... Smith, C. (2016). Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go!(TGEG) cluster-randomized controlled trial.BMC Public Health,16(1), 973. Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., Ogden, C. L. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010.Jama,307(5), 491-497. Gortmaker, S. L., Peterson, K., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A. M., Dixit, S., Fox, M. K., Laird, N. (2009). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health.Archives of pediatrics adolescent medicine,153(4), 409-418. He, Y., Pan, A., Yang, Y., Wang, Y., Xu, J., Zhang, Y., ... Yan, D. (2016). Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China.American Journal of Public Health,106(12), 2103-2110. Kantartzis, K., Machann, J., Schick, F., Rittig, K., Machicao, F., Fritsche, A., ... Stefan, N. (2011). Effects of a lifestyle intervention in metabolically benign and malign obesity.Diabetologia,54(4), 864-868. Loos, R. J., Lindgren, C. M., Li, S., Wheeler, E., Zhao, J. H., Prokopenko, I., ... Berndt, S. I. (2008). Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity.Nature genetics,40(6), 768-775. Marks, R. (2016). Is the Failure to Lose Weight among the Obese Partly Because Obesity is an Addictive Disease.Adv Obes Weight Manag Control,4(3), 00086. Mutsaerts, M. A., Van Oers, A. M., Groen, H., Burggraaff, J. M., Kuchenbecker, W. K., Perquin, D. A., ... Oosterhuis, G. J. (2016). Randomized trial of a lifestyle program in obese infertile women.New England Journal of Medicine,374(20), 1942-1953. Moussa, H. N., Alrais, M. A., Leon, M. G., Abbas, E. L., Sibai, B. M. (2016). Obesity epidemic: impact from preconception to postpartum. Molyneaux, E., Poston, L., Ashurst-Williams, S., Howard, L. M. (2014). Obesity and mental disorders during pregnancy and postpartum: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Obstetrics and gynecology,123(4), 857. Nyman, V. M., Prebensen, . K., Flensner, G. E. (2010). Obese women's experiences of encounters with midwives and physicians during pregnancy and childbirth.Midwifery,26(4), 424-429. Poromaa, I. S. (2015). Effect of obesity on human reproduction.Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica,57(1), K3. Rooney, K. L., Domar, A. D. (2014). The impact of lifestyle behaviors on infertility treatment outcome.Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology,26(3), 181-185. Ruhstaller, K., Elovitz, M., Stringer, M., Durnwald, C. (2016). 278: Does obesity affect maternal mental health during pregnancy?.American Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology,214(1), S161-S162. Tronieri, J. S., Wurst, C. M., Pearl, R. L., Allison, K. C. (2017). Sex Differences in Obesity and Mental Health.Current Psychiatry Reports,19(6), 29. Scarborough, P., Bhatnagar, P., Wickramasinghe, K. K., Allender, S., Foster, C., Rayner, M. (2011). The economic burden of ill health due to diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and obesity in the UK: an update to 200607 NHS costs.Journal of Public Health,33(4), 527-535. Uzogara, S. G. (2017). Obesity Epidemic, Medical and Quality of Life Consequences: A Review.International Journal of Public Health Research,5(1), 1. Wang, Y. C., McPherson, K., Marsh, T., Gortmaker, S. L., Brown, M. (2011). Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK.The Lancet,378(9793), 815-825.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Lake Description free essay sample

Descriptive Essay Lake Panonica On a hot summer day, the only good place to go is to the lake. You would go out to the lake to enjoy the water, the sun, the activities that are happening, or just to be with family and friends. We’re lucky enough to have such a lake right in the centre of our town. When youre at the lake, there are some very distinct smells. The salty smell of water blended in with the nature and the trees surrounding you which makes you feel as if you were miles away from the city, somewhere on the coast. You can also enjoy the sweet coconut smell of sun tanning lotion that people put on themselves while they lay into the sun to basically cook. But if youre looking for a quiet relaxation at the lake, I dont think that will work out too well. We will write a custom essay sample on Lake Description or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The lake is always really loud throughout the day. Youll definitely be able to hear the laughter and the excitement of children as they splash around in the lake, as well as the large amount of people talking and just basically having fun.Also the music from the nearby cafe is quite deafening, you can even hear it outside the margins of the lake. While youre at the lake you can always get involved in some fun activities, if you arent able to relax. You can go exercise on various machines, play volleyball in the sand, unless you don’t want get a bit dirty and sweaty, you can go to the waterfall and just enjoy the massaging effect of the water. In case you get hungry, there are always little stands with ice cream and soda to freshen you up even more. Overall the lake is a lot of fun to go to if you just want to get away from the busy, smelly city that you live in. If you are there early enough, for instance if you want to avoid the big crowd that comes in around noon, you will be able to see a beautiful, bright sunrise and if you enjoy staying out on the beach until the evening, Im sure you can catch a calming and loving sunset.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

King Ramkhamhaeng essays

King Ramkhamhaeng essays Throughout history, there have been many great rulers of many great ancient civilizations. Some of them might be Julius Caesar, Ramses II, Hammurabi, or Octavian Caesar. The list of them could go on forever. One of the most influential of his civilization, known for his wisdom, was King Ramkhamhaeng or Rama the Valiant, of the Thai people. He claimed to be the sovereign lord of all the Thai. Researchers guess that he lived from 1239 AD to after 1317 AD. During his lifetime, King Ramkhamhaeng invented the modern Thai script, expanded his kingdom far and wide, and made the Sukhothai Kingdom one of the greatest in Thai history. When the ancient Thai people moved into mainland Southeast Asia, they came across a people speaking the Mon-Khmer languages who had inhabited the region for a long period before then. During the first millennium, strong Indian and China influences brought Hindu and Buddhist beliefs to the area. Some of the groups that adopted these beliefs were the Mon of Myanmar who were the first people of Southeast Asia to adopt Buddhism. Between the sixth and ninth centuries, the Mon established several small Buddhist civilizations within modern-day Myanmar and Central Thailand. From their two capitals, Nakhon Pathom and Lop Buri, they extended their power east across the Khorat Plateau and north as fat as Chiang Mai. They extended their civilization northeast to present day Laos. This period was known as the Dvaravati period of Thailand. It was a period that was noted for its artwork; particularly its Buddhist sculptures made of terra cotta or stucco. When the Thai people moved south into the mainland of Southeast Asia, they also came across the Khmer from Cambodia. Between the 9th and 13th centuries, Khmer rulers expanded their civilizations from their capital of Angkor, establishing an empire that at its height, extended over approximately half of modern Thailand. This kingdom wa...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Critically discuss the position of legal aid in England and Wales Essay

Critically discuss the position of legal aid in England and Wales - Essay Example The government proposed changes in the civil legal aid as outlined by Justice Secretary Kenneth Clarke would see civil legal aid only routinely available for cases where life or liberty was so much at stake (Ministry of Justice, 2009, p.4). The funding would be removed on dispute like (Divorce, welfare benefits and school exclusion appeals, Employment, Immigration where the person is not detained and Clinical negligence and personal injury).However, legal funding would continue for cases like (Asylum, Mental health, Debt and housing matters where someones home is at immediate risk, Family law cases involving domestic violence, forced marriage or child abduction and for mediation as a means to resolve disputes). Other measures to be put in place are the use of telephone as single gateway to legal advice, purported benefit eligibility to access legal aid being replaced to depend on the disposable capital one has so as to qualify for the legal aid, and also the decrease in fees paid to the solicitors, judges and the barristers that provide the legal aid. The changes proposed in the legal aid are expected to cut the legal aid bill by  £350m a year by 2015. As its It is thought there would be 500,000 fewer civil cases as a result. The plan was taken through consultation from the public starting 15th November 2011 to 14th February 2011, so that the justice ministry could get the view of the public on the intended changes. It would discourage cases that are not worth taking to court being resolved through other methods of dispute resolution like mediation. As Mr. Clarke points out when reading the proposal to the MPs, he says that legal aid has seen unnecessary court cases that would have not reached the court-room door were they not being funded by tax payer’s money, but from the pocket of somebody else. He adds further that the proposal targets civil ‘and family schemes that discourage people to resort to lawyers and courts whenever they have